Home Informe especial San Nicolás, “Papá Noel” y el sentido de la Navidad

San Nicolás, “Papá Noel” y el sentido de la Navidad

San Nicolás, “Papá Noel” y el sentido de la Navidad. Coincidiendo con la revolución cultural que amenaza precipitar a Occidente en la completa disolución moral y social, han aparecido unas aberrantes “Mamás Noel”, primero extravagantes, después feministas, más tarde sensuales y por fin pornográficas.

Por Alejandro Ezcurra Naón

En la Navidad celebramos el momento culminante de la Historia humana, cuando Dios hecho hombre vino al mundo y “habitó en medio de nosotros”. [1] El nacimiento del Niño Jesús constituye un desborde inconmensurable de amor divino: el Verbo de Dios se reviste de nuestra naturaleza, para reparar al Padre como hombre por todos nuestros pecados, y abrirnos así las puertas del Cielo.

La fiesta de la pureza, de la familia y de los niños

La fiesta de Navidad es, pues, por excelencia, la fiesta de la inocencia, de la pureza, de las alegrías castas, serenas y profundas. Aquel tierno Niño que reposa en un pesebre es el “esperado de las naciones”, [2] el Mesías cuya sola presencia restaura el Orden vulnerado por el pecado e inaugura la Era de la Gracia, haciéndonos capaces de practicar todo bien.

Navidad es también la fiesta de la familia, porque envuelve a la Familia por excelencia, la Sagrada Familia constituida por el Niño Jesús, su santísima Madre —Virgen antes, durante y después del parto— y su padre legal el patriarca San José, heredero del trono de David.

Siendo la fiesta de la familia, no puede dejar de ser la fiesta de los niños. A lo largo de los siglos, la Iglesia buscó rodear la Navidad de manifestaciones que despertasen también en los más pequeños sentimientos de devoción y piedad hacia Aquel “a quien los cielos no pueden contener”, [3] pero que sin embargo se hizo pequeñito como ellos y para ellos.

Fueron así apareciendo costumbres como músicas, representaciones escénicas, oraciones propias, manjares, obsequios para los niños, o formas especiales de adornar las casas como montar el Nacimiento, práctica inaugurada por San Francisco de Asís que se propagó rápidamente por todo el mundo cristiano.

Y así como el pueblo español es el que más se conmueve con los sufrimientos de la Pasión del Redentor, o los pueblos eslavos son los que con más júbilo celebran la Pascua de Resurrección, sin duda son los pueblos germanos los que más se maravillan con el santo misterio de la Navidad.

Pedagogía navideña: la visita de San Nicolás

Una de las más encantadoras costumbres navideñas surgidas en Alemania es la visita de San Nicolás a los niños, preparándolos para esa gran festividad.

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Ícono de San Nicolás, escuela bizantina.

¿Y quién es San Nicolás? Sabemos que fue obispo de la ciudad de Myra, en la Licia romana (actual sureste de Turquía), que vivió en el siglo IV, combatió los cultos paganos y la herejía arriana —la cual negaba la doble naturaleza divina y humana de Jesucristo—, participó del concilio de Nicea que definió los 12 artículos de la fe católica en el Credo, y que después de una vida surcada de hechos extraordinarios falleció en diciembre del año 345. Cuando los musulmanes invadieron Turquía, las reliquias de San Nicolás fueron rescatadas y trasladadas a Bari, en Italia, donde se veneran hasta hoy; y allí comenzó su gran fama en Occidente.

La devoción a San Nicolás quedó asociada a los niños porque, aparte de haber tenido hacia ellos una especial caridad, los hizo objeto de numerosos milagros, incluso algunos tan estupendos como la resurrección de tres pequeños, asesinados por un hospedero.

Por esa razón, en la Alemania medieval surgió una simpática costumbre, que perdura hasta hoy en algunas regiones católicas: el 6 de diciembre, fiesta del santo obispo, un venerable “San Nicolás” de blancas barbas, revestido de solemnes trajes episcopales, mitra y báculo, visitaba las casas para preguntar cómo se han portando los pequeños. A los que habían sido buenos les regalaba confituras y otros obsequios, mientras que a los que tenían faltas, les dejaba apenas un negro trocito de carbón…

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El Obispo San Nicolás celebrado en Alemania.

Esa visita del santo a los hogares era acompañada de cantos, recitaciones, etc., y constituía una excelente forma de generar en las familias expectativa por la llegada del Niño Dios.

Vaciamiento y perversión: de San Nicolás a “Papá Noel”

Pero con la revolución protestante, todo se trastornó. Es muy instructivo apreciar cómo la degradación de la figura de San Nicolás acompaña las etapas del proceso de decadencia de la Cristiandad, descrito por Plinio Corrêa de Oliveira en su célebre ensayo Revolución y Contra-Revolución:

Durante la Seudo Reforma del siglo XVI, para ponerse a tono con el igualitarismo calvinista, en Holanda las vestimentas episcopales de San Nicolás desaparecieron, siendo reemplazadas por una abrigada ropa civil. Como los calvinistas no tienen jerarquía eclesiástica ni culto a los santos, la propia figura del santo obispo fue diluida y transformada en la de un ambiguo personaje llamado “Sinterklaas”, con atributos propios de seres mitológicos del paganismo nórdico. Y así deformado, en el siglo siguiente pasó a la colonia holandesa de Nueva Amsterdam, en América del Norte (futura Nueva York).

En el siglo XIX esta versión norteamericana del personaje, a la que se comenzó a llamar “Santa Claus” y que aún guardaba ciertos vestigios de San Nicolás, al soplo de las ideas de la Revolución Francesa se laicizó completamente, transformándose en el ficticio “Papá Noel” que hoy conocemos: un viejo de aspecto vulgar, obeso y bonachón, sin profesión ni religión conocidas —podría perfectamente ser agnóstico—, roncador y mentalmente algo decrépito, que reparte regalos no se sabe bien para qué, ni por cuenta de quién…

Ya en el siglo XX, nuevo paso en la decadencia: con la hegemonía política de los Estados Unidos, que se inicia con la victoria aliada en la Guerra de 1914-1918, sobrevino una paralela hegemonía cultural, que impuso universalmente los estilos del American way of life . Con ello, en los años ’30 un “Papá Noel” proletario, ícono de marketing de Coca-Cola, se transformó en el principal personaje de la Navidad norteamericana, desplazando de las conmemoraciones navideñas en espacios públicos al Niño Jesús, a la Sagrada Familia y a los Reyes Magos; mientras que el soso y trepidante Jingle Bells sustituía las suaves armonías del canto navideño por excelencia, el Stille Nacht (“Noche de paz”)…

Versiones tan ridículas de Papá Noel como el postizo “Viejito Pascuero” en Chile, se difundieron así por todo el mundo, vaciando gradualmente la Navidad de su sublime significado original, y transformándola en una mera celebración comercial.

Fin de un proceso, certeza de regeneración

Asistimos ahora a la etapa final de este vaciamiento. Coincidiendo con larevolución cultural que amenaza precipitar a Occidente en la completa disolución moral y social, en las últimas décadas han aparecido unas aberrantes “Mamás Noel”, primero extravagantes, después feministas, más tarde sensuales y por fin pornográficas: símbolos de la perversión revolucionaria de la Navidad.

Así, de las alegrías inocentes a la voluptuosidad, de la serenidad maravillada al frenesí, de la pureza al desenfreno, de la luz de Cristo a las pompas de satanás, vamos llegando al final de una pendiente de abominación que busca convertir la magna fiesta de la Cristiandad en el extremo opuesto de lo que sustancialmente es, la jubilosa celebración del nacimiento del Salvador del mundo.

Pero la verdadera Navidad no muere: ella continúa palpitando en los corazones de todos los que adoran al Divino Infante “en espíritu y en verdad” [4] y esperan la era de gloria para la Iglesia y de regeneración y esplendor para la Cristiandad, anunciada en Fátima.

* * *
En la base del precioso Niño Jesús del Santuario de Bogotá, popularizado en todo el orbe católico, leemos esta categórica afirmación: “Yo reinaré”. Con la confianza que nace de la fe, en esta Navidad pidamos al Niño Jesús que haga realidad esas palabras y apresure la venida de su Reino, suplicando con toda la Iglesia: “Veni, Dómine, et noli tardáre: relaxa facínora plebis tuӕ Israel” — “Ven Señor y no tardes: perdona los pecados de tu pueblo”. [5]

1875 COMENTARIOS

  1. Gracias por ofrecernos “algo” relacionado con la fiesta más grande que celebramos los cristianos…´Lo que más me gustó fué el final abierto a la Esperanza!!
    Ahí es donde debemos refugiarnos y fortalecernos…JESÚS, UNA VEZ MÁS LLEGA PARA QUEDARSE CON NOSOTROS….

    VEN SEÑOR JESÚS!!!!

  2. Muy buen articulo.Es increible como de un tiempo a esta parte se ha logrado casi borrar de la gente que la navidad es la celebracion del nacimiento de Jesus; para instalar en su lugar a un agradable pero ridiculo anciano vestido de rojo y blanco y que detras de esa fachada inocente se esconde el oscuro espiritu del consumismo y de la filosofia hueca y turbia del “tanto tenes,tanto vales”.

  3. Excelente artículo. Gracias, será de gran utilidad para enviárselo a jóvenes a los que no se le ha transmitido el verdadero sentido de la Navidad y sólo creen que es recibir regalos (OBLIGATORIO) “cumplir” un rato con la familia (sn más remedio) y luego ir bailar y emborracharse

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